Designing a Peer-Mentoring Program for Education Doctorate (EdD) Students

A Literature Review

  • Kendra Lowery Ball State University
  • Rachel Geesa Ball State University
  • Kat McConnell Ball State University
Keywords: peer-mentoring programs, education doctorate students, academic support, psychosocial support

Abstract

Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically.

Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in the program, or recent graduates. These criteria resulted in 15 articles.

Results: We applied what we learned about program design and characteristics in the creation of a voluntary peer-mentoring program for first year students, including purposeful selection and assignment of mentors and mentees along with stated expectations for the type and frequency of mentor/mentee conversations.

Conclusions: More research is needed that addresses a consistent definition of peer mentoring, methodological concerns about research, challenges of these programs, and how certain aspects of peer-mentoring programs relate to program completion rates.

Implications for Theory and/or Practice: Continued investigation into the benefits and challenges of mentoring programs will inform our service to students. Investigation into multiple programs and peer mentoring in the later stages of the doctoral journey will strengthen the extant literature about peer mentoring for doctoral students.

References

Adams, D. F., & Hayes, S. G. (2011). Integrating tutor training into faculty mentorship programming to serve students with disabilities. Learning Assistance Review, 16(2), 7–21.

Bista, K., & Cox, D. W. (2014). Cohort-based doctoral programs: What we have learned over the last 18 years. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 9, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.28945/1941

Booth, S., Merga, M., & Roni, S. M. (2016). Peer-mentors reflect on the benefits of mentoring: An autoethnography. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11, 383–402. https://doi.org/10.28945/3603

Bottoms, S., Pegg, J., Adams, A., Wu, K., Risser, H. S., & Kern, A. L. (2013). Mentoring from the outside: The role of a peer-mentoring community in the development of early career education faculty. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 21(2), 195–218. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2013.813730

Budge, S. (2006). Peer mentoring in post-secondary education: Implications for research and practice. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 37(1), 71–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/10790195.2006.10850194

Crisp, G., & Cruz, I. (2009). Mentoring college students: A critical review of the literature between 1990 and 2007. Research in Higher Education, 50(6), 525–545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-009-9130-2

Cutright, T. J., & Evans, E. (2016). Year-long peer-mentoring activity to enhance the retention of freshmen STEM students in a NSF scholarship program. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 24(3), 201–212. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2016.1222811

Douglass, A. G., Smith, D. L., & Smith, L. J. (2013). An exploration of the characteristics of effective undergraduate peer-mentoring relationships. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 21(2), 219–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2013.813740

Erickson, D. E., & Travick-Jackson, C. (2006). Creating community through mentoring. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 2, 262–270.

Ferguson, H., & Wheat, K. L. (2015). Early career academic mentoring using Twitter: The case of #ECRchat. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2014.991533

Fleck, C., & Mullins, M. E. (2012). Evaluating a psychology graduate student peer mentoring program. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(2), 271–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2012.687157

Goff, L. (2011). Evaluating the outcomes of a peer-mentoring program for students transitioning to postsecondary education. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2011.2.2

Grant-Vallone, E. J., & Ensher, E. A. (2000). Effects of peer mentoring on types of mentor support, program satisfaction and graduate student stress: A dyadic perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 41(6), 637–642.

Harnish, D., & Wild, L. A. (1993). Faculty peer mentoring: A strategy for improving instruction. Community College Journal, 64(1), 22–27.

Heirdsfield, A. M., Walker, S., Walsh, K., & Wilss, L. (2008). Peer mentoring for first-year teacher education students: The mentors’ experience. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(2), 109–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611260801916135

Holley, K. A., & Caldwell, M. L. (2012). The challenges of designing and implementing a doctoral student mentoring program. Innovative Higher Education, 37(3), 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-011-9203-y

Holt, L. J., & Lopez, M. J. (2014). Characteristics and correlates of supportive peer mentoring: A mixed methods study. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(5), 415–432. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2014.983326

Ivankova, N. V., & Stick, S. L. (2007). Students’ persistence in a distributed doctoral program in educational leadership in higher education: A mixed methods study. Research in Higher Education, 48(1), 93–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-006-9025-4

Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and undergraduate academic success: A literature review. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 505–532. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543061004505

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E., & Faber, S. T. (2016). Benefits of peer mentoring to mentors, female mentees and higher education institutions. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 24(2), 137–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2016.1170560

Kerrigan, M. R., & Hayes, K. M. (2016). EdD students’ self-efficacy and interest in conducting research. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11, 147–162. https://doi.org/10.28945/3413

Kram, K. E., & Isabella, L. A. (1985). Mentoring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Management Journal, 28(1), 110–132.

Lin, Y. (2014). Perspectives on peer mentoring from Taiwanese science and engineering master’s students. Education, 135(1), 79–92.

McCarthy, J., Trenga, M. E., & Weiner, B. (2005). The cohort model with graduate student learners: Faculty-student perspectives. Adult Learning, 16(3/4), 22–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/104515950501600305

Morales, E. E., Ambrose-Roman, S., & Perez-Maldonado, R. (2016). Transmitting success: Comprehensive peer mentoring for at-risk students in developmental math. Innovative Higher Education, 41(2), 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-015-9335-6

Mullen, C. A., & Tuten, E. M. (2010). Doctoral cohort mentoring: Interdependence, collaborative learning, and cultural change. Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 4(1), 11–32.

Murakami, E. T., & Nuñez, A. (2014). Latina faculty transcending barriers: Peer mentoring in a Hispanic-serving institution. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(4), 284–301. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2014.945739

Noonan, M. J., Ballinger, R., & Black, R. (2007). Peer and faculty mentoring in doctoral education: Definitions, experiences, and expectations. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 19(3), 251–262.

Nuñez, A., Murakami, E. T., & Gonzales, L. D. (2015). Weaving authenticity and legitimacy: Latina faculty peer mentoring. New Directions for Higher Education, 2015(171), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20145

Packer-Williams, C. L., & Evans, K. M. (2011). Retaining and reclaiming ourselves: Reflections on a peer-mentoring group experience for new African American women professors. Perspectives in Peer Programs, 23(1), 9–23.

Pidgeon, M., Archibald, J., & Hawkey, C. (2014). Relationships matter: Supporting Aboriginal graduate students in British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 44(1), 1–21.

Preston, J. P., Ogenchuk, M. J., & Nsiah, J. K. (2014). Peer mentorship and transformational learning: PhD student experiences. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 44(1), 52–68.

Rawlinson, C., & Willimot, M. (2016). Social justice, learning centredness and a first year experience peer-mentoring program: How might they connect? Journal of Peer Learning, 9(2016), 41–48.

Rees, A., & Shaw, K. (2014). Peer mentoring communities of practice for early and mid-career faculty: Broad benefits from a research-oriented female peer-mentoring group. Journal of Faculty Development, 28(2), 5–17.

Rios-Ellis, B., Rascón, M., Galvez, G., Inzunza-Franco, G., Bellamy, L., & Torres, A. (2015). Creating a model of Latino peer education: Weaving cultural capital into the fabric of academic services in an urban university setting. Education and Urban Society, 47(1), 33–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124512468006

Risquez, A., & Sanchez-Garcia, M. (2012). The jury is still out: Psychoemotional support in peer e-mentoring for transition to university. Internet and Higher Education, 15(3), 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.11.003

Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J., Spaulding, L. S., & Bade, B. (2014). Completion of educational doctorates: How universities can foster persistence. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 9, 293–308. https://doi.org/10.28945/2072

Ruane, R., & Lee, V. J. (2016). Analysis of discussion board interaction in an online peer mentoring site. Online Learning, 20(4), 79–99. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v20i4.1052

Seed, A. H. (2008). Cohort building through experiential learning. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(2), 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/105382590803100207

Seifert, K., & Mandzuk, D. (2006). Student cohorts in teacher education: Support groups or intellectual communities? Teachers College Record, 108(7), 1296–1320.

Shotton, H. J., Oosahwe, E. S. L., & Cintrón, R. (2007). Stories of success: Experiences of American Indian students in a peer-mentoring retention program. Review of Higher Education, 31(1), 81–107. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2007.0060

Smailes, J., & Gannon-Leary, P. (2011). Peer mentoring – Is a virtual form of support a viable alternative? Research in Learning Technology, 19(2), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v19i2.10351

Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Scielzo, S. A., Yarbrough, C. S., & Rosopa, P. J. (2008). A comparison of face-to-face and electronic peer-mentoring: Interactions with mentor gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(2), 193–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.11.004

Terrion, J. L., & Leonard, D. (2007). A taxonomy of the characteristics of student peer mentors in higher education: Findings from a literature review. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 15(2), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611260601086311

Terrion, J. L., & Philion, R. (2008). The electronic journal as reflection-on-action: A qualitative analysis of communication and learning in a peer-mentoring program. Studies in Higher Education, 33(5), 583–597. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070802373073

Thomas, N., Bystydzienski, J., & Desai, A. (2015). Changing institutional culture through peer mentoring of women STEM faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 40(2), 143–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-014-9300-9

Vaill, A. L., & Testori, P. A. (2012). Orientation, mentoring and ongoing support: A three-tiered approach to online faculty development. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(2), 111–119. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v16i2.256

Ward, E. G., Thomas, E. E., & Disch, W. B. (2014). Mentor service themes emergent in a holistic, undergraduate peer-mentoring experience. Journal of College Student Development, 55(6), 563–579. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2014.0058

Webb, A. K., Wangmo, T., Ewen, H. H., Teaster, P. B., & Hatch, L. R. (2009). Peer and faculty mentoring for students pursuing a PhD in gerontology. Educational Gerontology, 35(12), 1089–1106. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601270902917869

Wergin, J. F. (2011). Rebooting the EdD. Harvard Educational Review, 81(1), 119–139. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.81.1.fp775268x77n0122

Yob, I. M., & Crawford, L. (2012). Conceptual framework for mentoring doctoral students. Higher Learning Research Communications, 2(2), 34–47. https://doi.org/10.18870/hlrc.v2i2.66
Published
2018-04-26
How to Cite
Lowery, K., Geesa, R., & McConnell, K. (2018). Designing a Peer-Mentoring Program for Education Doctorate (EdD) Students. Higher Learning Research Communications, 8(1), 30–50. https://doi.org/10.18870/hlrc.v8i1.408
Section
Articles